When installing an electrical appliance, it is easy to overlook the electricity actually comes from. Electricity puts all electrical appliances to work Transmission and production are very far from each other, especially today that they have no limit ,,, but are sold and bought Its complication is very large from production to transmission Generation comes from two major routes, that of HPPs and TPPs where production is done on an immediate route … But transmission also brings electricity costs Turning off electricity on every road is a major electrical challenge from TESLA related to the construction, operation and maintenance of the power grid are often complex and sometimes unexpected. Many of these challenges have been overcome available which, at first glance, often seems like a chaotic and dangerous mess of wires and equipment, but that actually serves a large number of substations. We have electrical distributors as well as transmitters for increasing and decreasing electrical voltage I am Dritani and I will tell you about the substations which is composed and how it works
the sensations are our world which depends entirely on the voltage at the electricity distribution As simple as it may seem, the power grid is not just a series of interconnected troubles To whom all energy producers and users are collectively connected The wires in the transmission generally look endless but they also have a beginning and an end Electricity is divided into production and transmission and consumption transmission, or the movement of electricity from production to transmission electricity distribution is realized by substations they can be an input and very output or vice versa For transmission, electricity is transmitted or distributed in monophases or in 3 phases depending on the supply. and transmission is made depending on the electrical connection. Transmission is carried out according to the voltage level and depending on the pole or poles open so anyone can have a look. I am somewhat of an infrastructure tourist, a regular viewer of the built environment, and my goal is for you too to be able to think of solving this maze of modern electrical engineering so that next time you have celebrated the eyes at a substation, you will be able to appreciate as much as I do. It was originally named for smaller power plants that had been converted for other purposes, “substation” it is now a general term for a structure that can serve a variety of critical roles in the power grid.
Those roles depend on which parts of the electrical network are being connected together and the types, number and reliability requirements of eventual customers in the downstream. And the first and often simplest of these roles is changing. The general layout of a substation consists of a number of power lines (called conductors). if you want to adapt to electrical engineering) coming to the facility. These high voltage conductors are connected to a series of several or many pieces of equipment before moving on to their next step in the Energy Network. As a network crossing point, the substation often serves as the end of many individuals power lines. This creates redundancy, ensuring that the substation stays active even if one transmission lines go down. But it also creates complexity. Connections to these various devices are called buses, conductors, often rigid, conductors operating throughout the substation. Bus adjustment is a critical part of the design of any substation because it can have a major impact on overall reliability.
Like all devices, substations occasionally have malfunctions or things they just require regular maintenance. In order not to close the whole substation, we need switches that can insulate the equipment, transfer the load and check the flow of electricity along the bus. This may seem obvious, but turning on and off the high voltage lines is not as simple as that flip of a light switch. At high voltages, even air can act as a conductor, which means even if you create a break in a row, electricity can continue to flow in a phenomenon known as arc. Not only does arching defeat the purpose of a breaker, it is extremely dangerous and harmful of equipment. So switching to a substation is carefully controlled procedure with specially designed equipment to handle high voltages. Disconnection switches are often called switches only in addition to devices that serves another important role in a substation: protection. I mentioned earlier that much of the electricity infrastructure is exposed and open.
It’s nice for people like me who enjoy having a look, but it also means being vulnerable. in an infinite number of things that can go wrong. From lightning strikes to the limbs of deceptive trees, wind storms to squirrels claim that network operators with so many threats to their infrastructure per day. When something causes a short circuit in the power grid, also called a fault, it can be severe damage power lines and other equipment. Not only that, due to the overload complexity of the power grid, errors can and make cascades in unexpected and sometimes uncontrollable ways, leaving large populations powerless for hours or days. Many of the ways we protect devices from errors are handled in a substation.
One of the most common types of fault fault is a short circuit in ground. This type of fault creates a low path resistance for current flow and leads to an overload. of power lines and equipment. The simplest way to protect yourself against this type of guilt is with a fuse, a device that physically burning at a certain current threshold. The fuses are simple dies and do not require much maintenance, but they have the disadvantage too. They are disposable and cannot be used to interrupt currents for other types of errors. On the other hand, circuit breakers are a class of devices that serve similar roles as fuses, but offer more sophistication for handling a wide variety of errors. As you disconnect the switches, the circuit breakers must be carefully designed to disconnect major tensions and currents without damage. Once the contacts inside a circuit breaker are moved away from each other, an electric one bow shapes. This arc should be extinguished as soon as possible to prevent damage to the circuit breaker. or unsafe conditions for workers. The extinguishing of the arch is done by a material called dielectric that does not exist direct electricity.
style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-word;">For lower voltages, the circuit breakers can be placed in a closed container under vacuum to avoid the transmission of electricity in the air between contacts. For higher voltage, circuit breakers often sink into tanks filled with non-conducting oil or dense dielectric gas. These outages give network operators more control over how and when the power is cut off. Not every mistake is the same and sometimes operators even know of a concern ahead of time and can cause interruptions early prevent cascading failures. Many errors are temporary such as lightning strikes or branching of tree branches. A special type of circuit breaker called a recloser can interrupt the power for a short time time period and line regeneration in test if the fault is cleared. Re-shutdowns usually travel and review several times, depending on their programming, in advance deciding that a fault is permanent and closing out. If the demand for electricity in the network is so high that it cannot be met by the enterprise, substations can also be used to load.
Rotation conclusions are used to reduce total electrical requirements to avoid major failures in the network. One of the most important parts of network power is that different segments flow into different tensions. Voltage is a measure of the electric potential, somewhat equivalent to the pressure of a liquid. in a tube. Large power plants produce electricity at a somewhat low voltage of about 10-30 kilovolts or kV. From there, the voltage is greatly increased using higher transformers so that it can travel along the transmission lines. Using a higher voltage reduces losses along the way, making them more efficient but also much more dangerous. This is why the transmission lines are above so long – to keep them away from the path of the trees and human activities. But when transmission lines reach populations the area they serve is not possible to keep them so high in the air. So before distribution, the mains voltage must be broken again using transformers located inside a substation.
A transformer is an extremely simple device that relies on alternating current network to function. It consists of two adjacent wire coils. As the voltage across a coil changes, it creates a magnetic field. This field pairs with the other winding, inducing a voltage. The incredible part of a transformer has to do with the number of loops in each spiral. The induced voltage will be proportional to the ratio of the loops. For example, if the transmission side of the transformer has 1000 loops while the distribution the side has 100, the voltage on the side distribution will be 10 times less. This simple but extraordinary fact makes it possible for us to increase or decrease the voltage as needed to balance safety and efficiency together each part of the power grid.
The simplicity of transformers is great in many ways, but it also means it can make it difficult to make excellent adjustments in effect leaving the substation. Because of this, many substations include devices for monitoring and controlling network power. Instrument transformers are small transformers used to measure voltage or current in network or provide power to monitor the device system. Depending on the different transmission and distribution losses, the mains voltage may fluctuate outside an acceptable range. Regulators are devices with multiple taps that can make small adjustments – up or down – in the distribution voltage on the supply lines leaving the substation towards customers. If you look closely, you can sometimes see the dial regulator showing the position of the faucet. All that different equipment requires a lot of maintenance.
The ultimate and most important role of a substation is to be safe for electricians and linemen to inspect, repair and replace equipment. Substations are usually the only places where extra high voltage lines approach on the ground, so security is absolutely critical. The bus worker operating along the substation has been protected from short circuit by large insulators to avoid arches on the ground. Even connections to each piece of equipment are made through a device called a clutch which maintains a safe distance between electricity lines and places located on metal ground. Some substations have large concrete walls to serve as fire barriers between devices. All substations are built with a grounding rod rod and conductor buried beneath the surface. In case of fault, the substation needs to be able to immerse a lot of current in it ground for travelers to travel as soon as possible.
This argumentative grid also ensures that the entire substation and all its equipment are held at the same voltage level, called an equipotential, so that the touch of any part of equipment does not create a flow of electricity through a person. Finally, the substations are surrounded by large fences and warning signs to do absolutely sure every wise citizen knows how to stay out. In many ways, the network is a whole with a system size – a giant device for which we all connects the rotation to the perfect synchronous, in some cases, an entire continent. On the other hand, our energy needs, including when we need, how much we need, and how reliable it should be delivered vary widely.
Electricity requirements are very different between a sensitive research structure and a suburb residential neighborhood, between an army golf course at base and on site, and between a steel mill and a bowling alley. Likewise, each electrical substation is adapted to meet the infrastructure needs it has connections together. As the network becomes smarter, as demand models change, and as we (hopefully!) Continue to replace fossil fuel production with renewable energy sources to curb global warming, managing our electrical infrastructure will only get more challenging. So substations will continue to play a critical role in controlling and protecting power grid.